What effect does changing longitude have on the rising and setting of the stars?

Just short answers for question /
10 – read the att plz

4. The Mnajdra temple in Malta was constructed such that the Sun shown down
the middle of the temple on the equinoxes, and to the left and right during
the June and December solstices, respectively. Why does the Sun shine in the
same spot for the equinoxes, but in different positions for the solstices?

6. You observe a star reaching its peak altitude of 78 degrees. At another date,
you see the same star reach the same altitude, but 2 hours earlier than your
initial observation. How many days have elapsed between observations?

7. Use the rotating sky explorer
(http://astro.unl.edu/naap/motion2/animations/ce_hc.html) to determine
what latitudes the Big Dipper and Southern Cross become circumpolar.

8. What effect does changing longitude have on the rising and setting of the
stars?

9. What is the equant and what problem(s) it solve?

10. The scientific method relies on solving problems through observations or
experiment, not merely thought. It is not enough to propose an idea because
it sounds nice, there must be supporting evidence. Read the following pages
in History of the planetary systems from Thales to Kepler and argue if the
following arguments would be called scientific.

a. (108 112) Aristotle claims that the Universe is spherical, and rejects
the notion of Pythagorean idea of the harmony of the spheres. Are
either of these ideas scientific?

b. (359 361) In lecture we learned that Tycho Brahe had several
complaints about the heliocentric model of Copernicus. He wrote
these down and sent them to a follower of Copernicuss, Rothmann.
Which of Brahes arguments, if any, would you deem scientific (ignore
the triple motion complaint)?

c. Rothmann later replied to Brahes complaints. What was his rebuttal?
Were his arguments scientific? Again, ignore the third motion
comment.