Differentiate the pathophysiological process of various disorders affecting the renal system.
D.J. presents to the emergency room with sudden onset flank pain with nausea and vomiting. A urine specimen reveals hematuria. He is taken to the radiology department for an intravenous pyelogram (IVP). He is told he has nephrolithiasis and urolithiasis.
What are the predisposing factors or causes of most stones?
What are the potential treatments for D.J.?
How will the treatment be determined?
What will be the goals of nursing care?