explain what you want to find out more about this work.

1.1 Length

The project assignment should be about 3500 words (+/- 10%), in addition to the table of contents and literature list, etc.

Maps / photos / illustrations etc. are also not counted as page numbers.
1.1.1 Font
1.1.2 font

1.2 Margins and line spacing

Use standard setups with the right right margin and line spacing one and a half.
Use normal font size, for example. Times Roman, font size 12.


FORORD (1 page) (no requirement for project assignment)

If you wish to thank institutions and / or people who have been very helpful during the course of the assignment, this can be done in a preface.
In the preface you can use the I-form. Usually this form is avoided in the report itself.
In general, the name of supervisor / -e and others should be included. If the assignment is written with financial assistance or part of a project, this must be mentioned.


Here are the chapter and section headings with the specified page numbers for the start of them.


The introduction should say something about the topic that you have chosen to write about and provide a reason for choosing the topic. Furthermore, presenting a problem should explain what you want to find out more about this work. The problem is often formulated as a question. Here is also a delineation of the task.

Issues and research questions: Tips from Blaikie (pp. 65 – 70)
1. Write down any questions you come across
2. Edit / groups by theme, topic, like, different, central / less central
3. Specify what, why and how questions
4. Prepare assumptions
5. Prepare the scope of the issues. Do they allow themselves to answer, are they overloaded?
6. Share in main questions and question questions
7. Are all questions (issues) necessary?

Look closely … rattles …
Obvious opposites …
Obvious but non-explicit disagreements …
Things that annoy you …
Things that engage you …
Things you disagree with …
Things you think can be described / explained better …
Things that can be elaborated …
Relationships others do not see / have seen …
Issues that have not been raised, but should have been raised …
(Ref: a Oluf Langhelle, Professor, Dr. Polit. UIS)

Step 1:
Start by clarifying the purpose / challenge at an overall level.
Step 2: Issue and \”root cause\”
Based on Step 1, try to identify a challenge and formulate a problem. Try to answer:
– Why should the problem be solved now?
What are the disadvantages of this problem today?
(NB! Think holistic, \”holistic\”, both during problem identification and the solution)
– Where does the problem occur in one or more processes?
– What are the main reasons for the problem, in one or more processes?
Important to have a red thread in the task: Find and follow a red thread that matches the purpose.
– A small introduction to how does the problem solve?
– A good solution is always about what alternatives exist.
– Ensure that all good alternatives are among the options, use the option cost concept actively.
– How did you plan to solve the problem? What can you learn from others?
– How can you develop the options for the better, make them more flexible?
– Be critical, find both positive and negative aspects of all the relevant options. Do not decide in advance!

THEORY (2-4 pages)

A) Previous research (articles, not reports)
In theory, it may often be useful to account for results from previous research / research related to the current issue. It can either be research / analysis on the chosen theme or in connection with other similar topics / issues.

B) Theory used
Furthermore, explain a theory (s) that one considers relevant to elucidate the problem. Primarily it would be interesting to draw in theories from the syllabus, but often other theoretical contributions would also be relevant.

In the theory section, you may end up trying to present some assumptions about what one can expect to figure out in the project based on the different theories that one has presented. This may well be formulated as a couple of research questions that elaborate / clarify the issue.

Overview of theories, methods, models, etc. that are relevant for solving the task. That is, to answer the problem.
Can include curriculum from the study or other books and articles
Very important to set up references to where it is retrieved.
How much? Task-dependent – How central is the theory of the task?
Graphic reasoning is encouraged (as long as these reasoning is explained well in the text)
Focus on: (i) Requirements; (Ii) Theory / Mode of action; (Iii) Implications; And (iv) Limitations
METHOD (1-2 pages)

Here one should describe and justify the procedure one has chosen to find answers to the questions one has asked. Ie How one has gone through collecting data, which delimitations one has been required to make. It\’s also a plus if you have a brief discussion / comment on strong and weak aspects of choosing a method.
A method part consists of many of the following elements:
Research Strategy
Quantitative method and questionnaire
Designing the questionnaire
Qualitative method
Participating observation (??)
Interview and interview guide
Analysis Method
Strengths and weaknesses of the task design
Validity and Reliability
Examples of how to formulate sentences in the method section:
The purpose of this part of the assignment is to describe the research method I have used in the assignment. ….
In the assignment I have chosen to use qualitative (???) quantitative (???) The Qualitative part is method based on document analysis, participatory observation and interview survey ……
The quantitative method is based on questionnaire and analysis of available statistical material.
I use a combination of methods, since they provide a better understanding of … (?????), while the quantitative method says something about how ……. (???).
Such a mixture of methods is called method triangulation. By triangulation one can achieve that the strengths of one method overcome the weaknesses of another method and that complementary data is produced (Ringdal, 2007).
Metodriangulation implies that particular phenomena are studied from different angles and views, and that the problem is highlighted using different methods (1)

Using qualitative method: Arguments for the design of your survey: For example: The survey is based on information from participatory observation … or earlier research (ref ??) …
– Add to the questionnaire

EMPIRI (3-5 pages)

Presentation of data. What did one find out. What tells our data.
This can be a review of the results of the interview, from studies of documents, from participatory observation, from literature studies (as and may be empirical).

See the problem from multiple pages
Arguments based on criteria you make explicit (theories)
Wear different views towards each other
The purpose is to convince.
Note: Reports may be part of empirical, (document analysis)

FINAL DEFINITION / Analysis (3-4 pages)

A very important point is then to realize that their task is to come up with a recommendation for the future. Weigh arguments against each other.
It is you who must try to probate, or declare that the number data is relevant to the outcome, solution or decision to be taken.

\”A theory is based on an intelligent summary of the FOREIGN, and the future may not follow the same pattern.\”

Here you will present and discuss the results, ie the relationship between empirical and theory. What have you found. Why are you found in / not in accordance with theory. Could there be special conditions due to your finding what you found.

Answer the questions from the problem
remove questions that can not be adequately highlighted using the data
formulate questions that were not posed in the problem
To interpret
by comparing similarities and differences, as well as by criticizing and discussing different themes
View data to substantiate your claims
Explain your interpretation
Discuss your findings in relation to findings from other studies on the same topic

CONCLUSION (max 1 page)

Here you answer the problem, and possibly give some ideas on how to proceed in a future follow-up study.

Give a brief summary of the results of the assignment and what they can tell us.
Come with the main conclusion of their analysis
Match the conclusion of the introduction
NOTE: Things to avoid in a conclusion:
Bring new information
Everything not already mentioned should not be mentioned


All the literature referred to in the assignment is included here. Arranged alphabetically.


You can use your attachment for the assignment. But be critical of the use of attachments. Any attachments should be clearly numbered.

Quotes and references
Mark clearly when quoting informants or when quoting words from books. The quotes must be quoted (quotation marks). One common way to do it is:
\”A pattern of basic assumptions ….\” (Schein 1987: 7).

For example, if you refer to Reason\’s theory of organizational accidents in the text, you write the reference as follows: (Reason 1997)

APA standard.
In the bibliography, the author and the book it concerns will be stated. Example when it comes to books:

Reason, J (1997): Managing the Risks of Organizational Accidents.
Ashgate Publishing Company, England.

Perrow, C (1999): Normal Accidents – Living with High-Risk Tec